Abstract Generalised art which retains the essence or characteristics of a recognisable subject or object. Actual The physical roughness or smoothness of a surface. Additive Sculpture Modeling a sculpture by adding materials to it until desired effect is attained. Aerial Perspective The illusion of space on the picture plane created by means other than linear perspective such as contrast, warm and cool colours etc. Aesthetics A branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of beauty, the nature and value of art, and the inquiry processes and human responses associated with those topics. Airbrush Atomiser operated by compressed air used for spraying paint. Analogous Three colours that contain a common hue next to each other on the colour wheel. Analysis Identifying and examining separate parts as they function independently and together in creative works and studies of the visual arts. Animation The illusion of movement caused by successive presentations of inanimate objects in rapid order. Architecture The art of designing and planning the construction of buildings, cities, and/or bridges. Art History A record of the visual arts, incorporating information, interpretations, and judgments about art objects, artists, and conceptual influences on developments in the visual arts. Arts Disciplines Studies which include dance, music, theatre and visual arts. Assess To analyse and determine the nature and quality of achievement through means appropriate to the subject. Asymmetrical Balance An equal distribution of weight (physically or visually) achieved without identical units on both sides. One large shape or form may be balanced by several smaller ones. Also known as informal balance. Aural Art that incorporates sound. Background Part of the picture plane that seems to be the farthest from the viewer. Balance A principle of design referring to a feeling of equality in weight, attention or attraction within a composition. Batik A system of dyeing fabric in which selected areas are protected from the dye with wax. Biomorphic See organic. Calligraphy The art of lettering. Ceramics Handbuilt or wheelthrown sculpture or vessels made of clay which can be fired, or fired and glazed. Collage A collection of materials arranged for a composition or design on a flat surface. Colour A visually perceived hue. Colour Scheme Plan for organising colour. Complementary Colours opposite each other on a colour wheel that contrast with each other. Composition The way in which the parts of an artwork are put together or organised. Content Message the artist is trying to communicate in a work of art. Context A set of inter-related conditions (such as social, economic, political) in the visual arts that influence and give meaning to the development and reception of thoughts, ideas, or concepts and that define specific cultures and eras. Contour Interior and exterior edges of objects. Contour Line A line that follows the edges or edge of a shape or form. Contrast Refers to differences in values, colours, textures, and other elements in an artwork used to achieve emphasis and interest. Cool Colours Colours that suggest a cool, soothing feeling or mood. Cool colours are blues, some greens, and some violets. Cool colours appear to recede spatially in artwork. Create To produce works of visual art using materials, techniques, processes, elements, and analysis; the flexible and fluent generation of unique, complex, or elaborate ideas. Critical Process Description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation used in discussing artworks. Criticism Describe and evaluating the media, processes, and meanings of works of visual art, and making comparative judgments. Critique To review, analyse, and discuss works of art. Cross Cultural Art across cultures (intercultural). Culture - behaviors, customs, ideas, and skills of a distinct group of people. Dominance A principle of design where one element is emphasised. Edition A set number of productions of a work of art. Elements of Design Line, shape, form, colour, space, texture, and value. Emphasis A principle of design that refers to the use of areas that lead the eye from one part to another and then to the most important part of a composition. Enameling The process of firing special powder enamel pigments on copper or silver in a kiln. Ethnic Art Art inspired by a specific culture. Exhibitions An organised display of works of art. Explore A general concept used in this document that may include compare, contrast, identify, create, discuss, use, etc. Expression A process of conveying ideas, feelings, and meanings through selective use of the communicative possibilities of the visual arts. Fiber Arts Arts which include techniques such as stitchery, weaving, tapestry, basketry, papermaking, softsculpture, batik, needle arts, etc. Folk Art A style portraying the lives of the common people of a certain region. It generally covers decorative crafts and painting or sculpture produced for practical reasons. Foreground The space which appears to be closest to the viewer. Form 1. An element of art referring to three-dimensional objects; 2. The organisation of masses, shapes, or groups of elements in an artwork. Format 1. Any style or arrangement which may be repetitive; 2. An arrangement which is the accepted structure. Free-flowing (free-form) Any curvilinear, asymmetrical shape not bound by hard edges. Functional Art Art designed for a certain purpose. Functions (and purposes) of Art Describes the context and reasons, the desired results, for which the art work was created. In art education, students examine and use subject matter, themes, symbols, as well as formal characteristics of art works to give meaning to art content. Geometric Form Mathematical three-dimensional shapes;. cube, triangle, square, pyramid, etc. Geometric Shapes Two-dimensional shapes created by the exact mathematical laws; oval, circle, square, triangle, and rectangle. Glazing A technique used in painting in which pigment mixed with a transparent medium is layered, allowing underlying colours to show through. Glazing in ceramics is the process of applying glaze to clay work. Gradation A gradual smooth change from light to dark, rough to smooth or one colour to another. Graphic Design A category of art that includes designing for commercial purposes, packages, signs, and advertisements. Handbuilding A process used in ceramics that incorporates slabwork, coils, and sculptural elements. Harmony The unity of all visual elements of a composition achieved by the repetition of the same characteristics or those which are similar in nature. Horizon Line The line, either real or implied, in a work of art that marks where the sky and the ground appear to meet. Hue The name of a colour. Illustration A work of art that usually seeks to join visual and discursive information for the purposes of communication. Intensity The brightness (purity) or dullness of a colour, also known as chroma. Intermediate Colours (Tertiary) A colour made by mixing a primary colour with a secondary colour. Jewelry A functional art form that involves assemblage and/or sculptural techniques to create ornamental objects, i.e., metalsmithing, lapidary, enameling, beading. Kinetic Art designed to move by natural or man-made forces. Line An uninterrupted actual mark or implied direction going from one point to another. Maquettes A small sculpture made as a preliminary model. Materials Resources used in the creation and study of visual art, such as paint, clay, cardboard, canvas, film, videotape, models, watercolours, wood, and plastic. Media Broad categories for grouping works of visual art according to the art materials used. Media Arts Art forms that deal with electronic technologies. Middleground A term used to define a level surface behind the foreground and in front of the background. Mixed Media The use of different materials in the same work of art. Model or Modeling To shape or build up with malleable media. Monochromatic Uses only one hue and variations obtained from its tints, shades, and tones. Montage A composite picture resulting from the placing of objects, materials, prints, or photographs in a preconceived design. Mosaic A method of decoration using small pieces of coloured glass, stone, or ceramics which are inlaid on a background to form a design or a picture. Motif A recurring element, subject, or theme in works of art. Movement A principle of design that refers to the arrangement of elements in an artwork organised in such a way as to create a sense of motion. Movements (Arts) Refers to an historical or cultural period when certain styles became prevalent. Multi-cultural Refers to more than one culture. Negative Space The space around and through a shape or object. Neutral Colours Colours formed by mixing complementary colours on the colour wheel. Non-objective Shapes/forms created with no regard to an identifiable subject or object. One-Point Perspective A system of creating the illusion of space in the picture plane using one vanishing point. Organic Form Three-dimensional free-flowing shapes found in nature. Organic Shape Two-dimensional or flat free-flowing shapes found in nature. Origami The art of Oriental paper folding. Papier Maché A technique used to create three-dimensional forms with a mixture of shredded or torn paper and paste. Pattern Repetition of a motif involving line, shape, colour, value, or space in a composition. Perception Visual and sensory awareness, discrimination, and integration of impressions, conditions, and relationships with regard to objects, images, and feelings. Perspective The representation of three-dimensional objects on a flat, two-dimensional surface; one-point, two-point, linear, aerial/atmospheric. Photogram A process in which light-sensitive paper is exposed with objects to create positive and negative space. Photography The technique of capturing optical images on light sensitive surfaces. Pin Hole Camera A hand-made camera using a pin hole opening to expose the film to light. Pointillism A method of painting in which the dots of colours blend visually from a distance to create the illusion of forms, shapes, and outlines. Portfolio A comprehensive collection of student work. Positive Space The space in a composition occupied by the subject or objects. Primary Colours Red, yellow, blue. Principles of Design Rhythm/movement, balance, unity/harmony, dominance/emphasis, repetition/pattern, proportion/scale, and contrast/variety. Printmaking The design and production of prints through a graphic art process. Processes may include intaglio, monoprint, silkscreen, stamp, engraving, lithography, collography, etc. Process A complex operation involving a number of methods or techniques, such as the addition and subtraction processes in sculpture, the etching and intaglio processes in printmaking, or the casting or constructing processes in making jewelry. Proportion Scale or the relationship of one part of a work of art to the other and to the whole. Figure (Adult 7.5 heads high) - three and one-half heads from waist to top of head; four from waist to toes. Arms fall at mid thigh. Portrait Eyes are one-half distance from top of head. Nose is one-half distance between eyes and chin. Mouth is one-half distance between nose and chin. Radial Balance Type of balance in which forces or elements of a design come out from a central point. Realism A style of art that portrays people, objects or places as we actually see them. Realistic art portrays lifelike colours, textures, shadows, proportions, and arrangements. Repetition A principle of design where a single element appears again and again. A technique for creating rhythm and unity. Rhythm Repetition of visual elements such as lines, shapes, or colours that may suggest movement. Scale Proportion. Sculpture Three-dimensional art forms created from processes of carving, modeling, and/or assemblage. Secondary Colours Colours created by mixing two primary colours; orange, green, and violet. Self-portrait A rendering of the artist's own likeness. Shade A colour with black added to it to change colour value. Shading Gradation of tone or filling in areas through shadows. Shape Any two-dimensional area defined by line, colour, tones, or edges. Space A perceived area or surface. Spatial Of, or existing, in space. Split-Complementary Colours A colour and the two colours on either side of its complement on the colour wheel. Stained Glass Coloured glass cut into pieces, arranged in a design, and joined with strips of lead. Structures Means of organising the components of a work into a cohesive and meaningful whole, such as sensory qualities, organisational principles, expressive features, and functions of art. Style An artistic technique or way of expressing, using materials, constructing, or designing that is characteristic of an individual, group, period, or culture. Subtractive Sculpture Process in which three-dimensional form is created by removing, cutting away, or carving out unwanted materials. Symbol Something that stands for, or represents, something else. Synthesis Combining of parts into a whole. Tactile Appealing to the sense of touch. Techniques Specific methods or procedures used in a larger process; for example, graduation of value or hue in painting, or conveying linear perspective through overlapping, shading, or varying size or colour. Technologies Complex machines used in the study and creation of art, such as lathes, presses, computers, lasers, and video equipment. Temporal Worldly; or time; art enduring for a time. Tertiary The combination of a primary and a neighboring secondary colour on the colour wheel. Also known as intermediate colours. Texture The tactile quality of a surface. Simulated The illusion of roughness or smoothness of a surface. Theme A subject or topic in art work. Three-Dimensional Form Objects which have height, width, and depth. Thumbnail Sketches Small drawings used to develop an idea or composition. Timeline Chart showing the chronological progression of art history. Tint A colour with white added to raise or lighten its value. Tone Changes in intensity. Triadic The colours found on the colour wheel which form an equilateral triangle. Two-Dimensional Flat area having height and width but no actual depth. Two Point Perspective Perspective viewed when an object is observed from an angle. There are two vanishing points. Unity A principle of design referring to the arrangement of a work in which all parts seem interrelated. Value The element of art that refers to the lightness or darkness of an object or colour. Value Scale Gradation of dark to light usually made on a scale of 1-10. Variety A principle of design concerned with difference or contrast. Visual Art A broad category that includes the traditional fine arts such as drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture; communication and design arts such as film, television, graphics, product design; architecture and environmental arts such as urban, interior, and landscape design; folk arts; and works of art such as ceramics, fibers, jewelry, works in wood, paper, and other materials. Warm Colours Colours which appear to advance spatially in an art work and suggest a warm, hot, or active mood. Warm colours include reds, yellows, and oranges.